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Table 1 Molecules and pathways targeted in neuroprotection

From: Neuroprotective therapies for multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases

Pathway Molecule Candidate drugs
Trophic factors BDNF, IGF-1, CNTF, etc. rhBNDF, rhIGF-1, rhCNTF, etc., CERE-110 (AAV2-NGF)
Mitochondria dysfunction and energy depletion Cytochrome C, ATP Resveratrol, Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone, Troglitazone, Bezafibrate (PPARγ activator)
Ion channel Sodium, Potassium or Calcium channels, Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Phenitoin, Lamotrigin, Amiloride
Oxidative stress iNOS, Nerf2 Dimethyl-Fumarate, Resveratrol, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Carnosine, Coenzyme-Q, Idebenone, Carotenoids
Excitotoxicity Glutamate Memantine, Riluzole
Demyelination MOG, Lingo-1 BIIB003, Clemastine benztropine, miconazole and clobetasol
Axonal transport Dynamin, kinesin, microtubules Epothilone B
Inhibitory molecules axonal growth and myelination Lingo-1, Nogo-A BIIB003, GSK1223249
Apoptosis Bcl2, Bim, Bax, Cytochrome C, Caspase-3 Caspase or calpain inhibitors, Mynocycline
Microglia M2 mediated neuroprotection CD200, trophic factors (BDNF), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, TGFß) Interferon-beta, Glatiramer acetate, Fumarate, Dimethyl-Fumarate, Mesenchymal stem cells
Astrocyte mediated neuroprotection Trophic factors, NAA, pyruvate, lactate Pentamidine, Methylthioadenosine, Fingolimod
  1. BDNF brain-derived nerve factor, IGF-1 insulin growth factor, CNTF cilliary neurotrophic factor, NGF Nerve growth factor, rh recombinant human, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, ATP adenosine triphosphate, MOG myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, NAA N-Acetyl aspartate