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Table 2 Neuroprotective drugs in clinical development for MS

From: Neuroprotective therapies for multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases

Drug Company Type of compound MoA summary Route of administration Phase
KPT-350 Karyopharm Therapeutic Small molecule - Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Antioxidant Neuroprotection Oral Preclinical N/A
NDC-1308 ENDECE Neural Small molecule Estradiol analog Neuroprotection Remyelination N/A Preclinical N/A
Methylthioadenosine Digna Biotech Metabolite Methyltransferases modulator Neuroprotection Remyelination Oral Preclinical N/A
NRP2945 CuroNZ Peptide Neuroprotection N/A Preclinical N/A
ER agonist Karo Bio AB Smal chemicals Estrogen Receptor beta agonist Neuroprotection N/A Preclinical N/A
VX15/2503 Vaccinex mAb - anti-semaphorin 4D Anti-SEMA4D Neuroprotection Remyelination Intravenous Phase 1 NCT01764737
RNS60 Revalesio Physically-Modified Saline Immunomodulation Neuroprotection Intravenous Phase 2 NCT01714089
GNbAC1 GeNeuro mAb First-in-Class Immunomodulation Remyelination Intravenous Phase 2a NCT01639300
TRO19622 Olesoxime Trophos SA Small chemical Antioxidant Oral Phase 1 NCT01808885
BIIB0033 - Anti-LINGO1 Biogen Idec mAb LINGO-1 antagonist Remyelination Neuroprotection Intravenous Phase 2
Phase 2
NCT01864148 NCT01721161
rHIgM22 Acorda Therapeutics mAb - Recombinant human IgM Remyelination Intravenous Phase 1 NCT01803867
MN-166 Ibudilast MediciNova Small molecule Immunomodulation Neuroprotection Oral Phase 2 NCT01982942
RGN-352 RegeneRx Peptide Neuroprotection Remyelination N/A N/A N/A
EGCG - Epigallocatechin-gallate Generic Green tea extract (Polyphenon E) Anti-oxidant Oral Phase 2 NCT00525668 NCT01451723
Lamotrigine GlaxoSmithKline Small chemical Sodium channel modulator Neuroprotection Oral Oral NCT01879527
Phenitoin Generic Small chemical Sodium channel modulator Neuroprotection Oral Phase 2 NCT01451593
MRF-008 Guanabenz Myelin Repair Foundation Small chemical Alpha agonist of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Remyelination Oral Phase 1 NCT02423083
Clemastine Generic Small chemical Remyelination Oral Phase 2 NCT02040298
BAF312 Novartis Small chemical - Siponimod S1P1 antagonist Neuroprotection Oral Phase 2
Phase 3
Amiloride Generic Small chemical Sodium channel modulator Oral Phase 2 NCT01910259
BN201 Bionure Small chemical Neurotrophin agonist Neuroprotection Intravenous Phase 1 N/A
Erythropietin Generic Human recombinant protein Trophic factor Neuroprotection Intravenous Phase 3 NCT01962571
GSK1223249 – Ozanezumab GlaxoSmithKline mAb Anti-Nogo-A Axonal regeneration Intravenous Phase 2 NCT01435993
Diazoxide Generic Small chemical Potassium channel opener & mitochondrial channel modulator Oral Phase 2 NCT01428726
Minocycline Generic Small chemical Anti-apoptotic & anti-oxidant Oral Phase 2 NCT01073813
Riluzole Generic Small chemical Sodium channel and NMDA modulator Oral Phase 2 NCT00501943
MD1003 - Biotin Generic Vitamin Carboxylases coenzyme (acetylCoA carboxylase) Remyelination Oral Phase 3 NCT02220933
BG12 - Dimethyl Fumarate Biogen Idec Metabolite Anti-oxidant hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 agonist Oral Approved NCT00420212
FTY720 - Fingolimod Novartis Small chemical S1P1 and S1P5 antagonist neuroprotection Oral Approved NCT00355134