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Table 3 Clinical red flags for alternative diagnosis [74, 85]

From: Pediatric versus adult MS: similar or different?

Red flags Diagnosis to consider
Seizures - Vasculitis
- tumor
- infection
- NMDA-receptor encephalitis
Headache - Vasculitis
- Susac syndrome (visual/hearing loss)
- infection
- venous thrombosis
- cerebral edema
- idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Psychosis - vasculitis
- SLE
- GM2 gangliosidosis
- Susac syndrome
- corticosteroid therapy
Cranial neuropathy - neuroborelliosis
- neurosarcoidosis
- Bechet disease
Visual loss - LHON
- Psychogenic
Recurrent optic neuropathy - NMO
- LHON
- CRION
retinopathy - Susac syndrome
- Mitochondrial encephalopathy
Peripheral neuropathy - Charcot Marie-Tooth disease
- neuroborelliosis
- Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Progressive/relapsing encephalopathy - Leukodystrophies
- Mitochondrial encephalopathy
- CADASIL
Spastic paraplegia - NMO
- Tumor, vascular disorders
- SLE
- neurosarcoidosis
- Hereditary spastic paraplegia
  1. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, NMO neuromyelitis optica, LHON Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, CRION, chronic inflammatory optic neuropathy, CADASIL cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy