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Table 1 Overview of the main studies on symptomatic treatments for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

From: Disease modifying treatments and symptomatic drugs for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis: where do we stand?

Authors, year Drug Number treated Design Duration Cognitive results
Geisler et al., 1996 [31] Amantadine, pemoline 16 DB, PC, RCT 6 weeks No improv.
Moller et al., 2011 [32] Modafinil 62 DB, PC, RCT 8 weeks No improv.
Lange et al., 2009 [52] Modafinil 8 DB, PC, RCT 8 weeks Improvement
Stankoff et al., 2005 [53] Modafinil 59 DB, PC, RCT 5 weeks No improv.
Wilken et al., 2008 [33] Modafinil 23 Randomized, evaluator blind 4 months Improvement
Bruce et al., 2012 [34] Armodafinil 16 DB, PC, CO 1 week Improvement
Ford-Johnson et al., 2016 [35] Modafinil 16 DB, CO 5 weeks Improvement
Shaygannejad et al. [38] Rivastigmine 30 DB, PC, RCT 12 weeks No improvement
Parry et al., 2003 [36] Rivastigmine 10 OLT 4–6 weeks Improvement
Cader et al., 2009 [37] Rivastigmine 15 CO, SB 4–6 weeks No improv.
Krupp et al., 2004 [39] Donepezil 35 DB, PC, RCT 24 weeks Improvement
Krupp et al., 2011 [40] Donepezil 61 DB, PC, RCT 24 weeks No Improv.
Lovera et al., 2010 [41] Memantina 58 DB, PC, RCT 16 weeks No improv.
Villoslada et al., 2009 [54] Memantina 19 DB, PC, CO 12 months No improv.
Peyro Saint Paul et al., 2016 [42] Memantina 50 DB, PC, PG, RCT 52 weeks No improv.
Benedict et al., 2008 [43] l-amphetamine 19 Counterbalanced, within-subject 4x single doses Improvement
Morrow et al., 2009 [44] l-amphetamine 108 DB, PC, RCT 4 weeks No improv.
Sumowki et al., 2011 [45] (re-analysis of 66) l-amphetamine 108 DB, PC, RCT 4 weeks Improvement
Harel et al., 2009 [46] Methylphenidate 14 DB, PC, RCT Single dose Improvement
Lovera et al., 2007 [55] Ginkgo biloba 20 DB, PC, RCT 12 weeks No improv.
Lovera et al., 2012 [56] Ginkgo biloba 61 DB, PC, RCT 12 weeks No improv.
Johnson et al., 2006 [57] Ginkgo biloba 12 DB, PC, PG 4 weeks Improvement variable responses
Magnin et al., 2015 [48] Fampridine 50 OLT 4 weeks Improvement
Pavsic et al., 2015 [49] Fampridine 30 OLT 4 weeks No improv.
Jensen et al., 2014 [50] Fampridine 108 OLT 26–28 days Improvement
Romero et al., 2015 [47] Cannabis 20 PG Single dose No improv.
  1. DB double blind, PC placebo controlled, RCT randomized controlled trial, CO crossover, SB single blind, OLT open label trial, PG parallel group