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Table 1 Negative Prognostic factors in naïve MS patients [12]

From: Induction treatment strategy in multiple sclerosis: a review of past experiences and future perspectives

Clinical Feature Demographics • Male sex
• Older age (> 40 years) at onset
Relapse severity • ≥1-point change on EDSS, ≥2-point change on any individual functional system, or ≥ 1-point change on any two functional systems
• Steroid requirement
• Hospitalization
Relapse frequency • Frequent relapses in the first 2 years
• Short time interval between relapses
Disease Course • Rapid increase of disability (e.g EDSS score ≥ 4) in 12 months
MRI charatersitics   • High T2 lesion load
• More than two gadolinium-enhancing lesions
• Presence of T1 lesions (‘black holes’)
• Infratentorial lesions